Chaparro, O.R.; Navarrete, L.R.; Thompson, R.J. (2006). The physiology of the larva of the Chilean oyster Ostrea chilensis and the utilisation of biochemical energy reserves during development: An extreme case of the brooding habit. Journal Of Sea Research. 55 (4) 292-300.
In the oyster Ostrea chilensis the adult female broods the young for almost the entire developmental period, releasing a large pediveliger larva (450 mu m shell length) with an extremely short pelagic phase. In this study of the larval physiology, the dry weight of the embryo or larva remained constant during the early developmental stages (as far as, and including, the trochophore), but the veliger grew steadily to reach 8 mu g at 450 mu m shell length, the stage at which it was ready for release. During this growth period the veliger consumed metabolic reserves (62% protein and 38% lipid). Carbohydrate levels were negligible. Chilean oyster veligers larger than 275 mu m shell length were able to remove particles from suspension, but clearance rate (2 mu l h(-1) larva(-1) at 450 mu m shell length) was much lower than published values for planktotrophic veligers. Low clearance rate in the veliger of O. chilensis is probably attributable to the absence of the postoral ciliary band. Oxygen uptake increased from 19-22 nl O-2 h(-1) ind-(-1) for preveliger stages to 32 nl O-2 h(-1) ind(-1) for a veliger 450 mu m long, which is consistent with published values for veligers in general when corrected for body weight. Excretion rate was low, increasing from 0.04 ng NH4-N h(-1) larva(-1) in the trochophore to 0.13 ng NH4-N h(-1) larva(-1) in a pediveliger of shell length 450 mu m. Biochemical energy reserves were insufficient to meet the metabolic demands of the developing larva, suggesting that uptake of particles and/or dissolved organic matter from the mantle cavity of the female is necessary for successful development. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.